Clay soil has a high content of clay minerals, resulting in a sticky and plastic texture when wet and a hard and brittle texture when dry. When the moisture content changes, it can significantly expand and compress with temperature and pressure, which can cause problems for the foundations and structures built on it. Therefore, it is crucial to know how to stabilize foundation on clay soil, especially if planning to build or renovate a home or a commercial building. Stabilizing foundations on clay soil can prevent or reduce the risks of foundation damage.
Various Approaches for Stabilizing Clay Soil Foundations
- Use the right foundation type and design.
- The type and design of the foundation should be suitable for the characteristics and behavior of the clay soil. For example, shallow foundations, such as slab-on-grade or mat foundations, may not be adequate for expansive clay soils that swell and shrink with moisture changes.
- Deep foundations, such as piles or piers, may be more appropriate, as they can transfer the load to a deeper and more stable layer of soil. The foundation should also have adequate reinforcement, drainage, and insulation to resist the stresses and strains caused by clay soil movements.
- Use soil stabilization additives.
- Another method for how to stabilize foundation on clay soil is using soil stabilization additives, which are substances added to the clay soil to improve its physical and chemical properties.
- Some of the common additives are lime, cement, fly ash, slag, gypsum, polymers, enzymes, or bacteria. One can mix these additives with the clay soil depending on the availability of equipment and space in situ (in place) or ex-situ (off-site).
- One can also apply the additives in different forms, such as powder, liquid, or slurry.
- Use drainage systems.
- Drainage systems are devices or structures installed around or under the foundation to control the clay soil’s water flow and moisture level.
- Drainage can help prevent or reduce the swelling and shrinking of clay soil by keeping it at a constant moisture content. It can also prevent or minimize erosion, flooding, or waterlogging of clay soil by diverting excess water away from the foundation.
- Common drainage systems include gutters, downspouts, french drains, sump pumps, perforated pipes, or gravel beds.
- Use landscaping techniques.
- Landscaping techniques modify the surface or vegetation to influence the water and moisture in the clay soil. By creating a buffer zone between the foundation and the surrounding environment, they can help prevent or reduce clay soil movements and enhance the aesthetic appeal and value of the property.
- Some standard landscaping techniques are grading, mulching, planting, and irrigating.
- One can use grading, which levels or slopes the ground; mulching, which covers the soil with organic or inorganic materials; planting, which grows plants, flowers, trees, or shrubs; and irrigating, which supplies water to plants or soil.
Consult a professional engineer, contractor, or soil expert before choosing or applying any method for stabilizing the foundation on clay soil. A professional can assess the condition and characteristics of the soil and the foundation and recommend the best solution for how to stabilize foundation on clay soil. A specialist can also guarantee that the chosen method complies with local codes and regulations and follows safety and quality standards.